Falsifying the Theory of Evolution
It is a basic thing in science that theories have to be testable. If something is not testable it cannot be considered as a serious scientific theory. This does not mean that the thing is not true, or important just that it is not part of science. So, for the Theory of Evolution by natural selection to be considered seriously there have to be ways it could be proved wrong.
J.B.S. Haldane supposedly haldanes gave the discovery of Rabbit fossils in Precambrian rocks as an example of a fact that would falsify the theory of evolution. The main evidence given for evolution by Charles Darwin is not fossil. Darwin was a trained Geologist, and he certainly mentions fossils, but most of the large amount of evidence he presented was from currently existing living things. J.B.S. Haldane was referring to the apparent fact that the fossil record shows apparently ancestral groups in older rocks than their apparent descendants, and not randomly distributed through the rocks.
A Monkey Giving Birth to a Human
However there are other things that would falsify the theory of evolution. One of these would be a monkey giving birth to a human baby. Darwin’s theory of evolution suggests that an animal’s offspring will be of its own kind, with the sort of variations that we know occur in species, so one species giving birth to a completely different one is not evolution.
Of course with the peculiar things that scientists are capable of nowadays we would have to add that both parents were of the same type of monkey, and there had not been any strange tampering by scientists. Of course results can be faked.
So, monkey parents giving birth to a human would disprove the theory of evolution, but it is well within the realms of possibility for monkey parents to give birth to a baby with some human characteristics, for example the baby monkey might have no tail like humans and apes. A mutation along these lines happened for tailless Cats, but they are still Cats.
Another way of testing scientific theories is to make predictions and then test them. Charles Darwin made several predictions. One of these followed the discovery of a type of orchid which had a very long narrow flower. Darwin predicted that an insect would be found with a tongue so long that it would be able to reach right down to the bottom of the flower, getting the nectar and fertilizing the flower. This insect was discovered later.
Steve Challis has information about many types of animal on [http://stevechallis.net] as well as several articles about evolution including the article called A”Proof Darwin was Wrong”